Laparoscopic surgery, also called minimally invasive surgery or keyhole surgery, is a modern surgical technique in which operations are performed through small incisions, with the help of a camera. Today, laparoscopic surgery is a widely accepted surgical technique that uses long pencil-like instruments to perform operations with a camera. As the incisions are much smaller than their open counterparts, recovery is faster and post-operative pain is typically less. This surgery can now be performed as an outpatient operation. Laparoscopy has advanced sufficiently to the extent that it can be repeated for a patient who has undergone a previous laparoscopic operation. However, care needs to be taken that organs do not get injured and to this end the entry site may have to be different and an alternate entry technique may have to be used. The risk to benefit ratio of laparoscopic surgery is improving continuously in favor of benefits.
A hysterectomy is a surgical procedure to remove a woman’s uterus. A patient may need hysterectomy for many reasons such as uterine fibroids, endometriosis, chronic pelvic pain, adenomyosis and some others. The surgery can be used to treat a number of chronic pain conditions as well as certain types of cancer and infections. The extent of a hysterectomy varies depending on the reason for the surgery. It’s considered to be a safe, low-risk surgery. However, a hysterectomy may not be the best option for all women. Luckily, many conditions that can be treated with a hysterectomy may also be treated in other ways. For instance, hormone therapy can be used to treat endometriosis. Fibroids can be treated with other types of surgery that spare the uterus. In some circumstances, however, a hysterectomy is clearly the best choice. It’s usually the only option for treating uterine or cervical cancer.
A hysteroscopy is a procedure in which your doctor inserts a small-diameter device into your uterus. This device has a light and a small camera on the end to allow the doctor to see inside your uterus. There are several reasons for this procedure. It can be used for either surgical or diagnostic purposes. It may be used for visual confirmation of another test result or to aid in the removal of fibroids and polyps. Your doctor may order some type of sedative for you to take beforehand so that you’ll be more relaxed. The extent of anesthesia you need will depend on the purpose of your hysteroscopy. It’ll also depend on where you have your hysteroscopy. It can be done either in your doctor’s office or at a hospital. For most diagnostic-only purposes, the hysteroscopy can be done in your doctor’s office with just local or regional anesthesia
In-vitro fertilization literally means fertilised in glass. IVF refers to a technique of assisted reproduction where the egg and sperm are fertilised outside of the body to form an embryo. This embryo is then transferred to the uterus to hopefully implant and become a pregnancy. All IVF treatments begin with a course of hormone therapy to stimulate the development of several follicles in the ovary. These are collected as eggs, which are then fertilized in a test-tube (‘in-vitro’) to create several embryos. After two and five days in an incubator, one or two of these embryos are transferred to the uterus, where implantation occurs and pregnancy begins. However, in IVF as in natural conception, not every embryo implants to become a pregnancy, which is why surplus embryos are frozen – so that a subsequent transfer might be tried if the first one fails.